collective for social science research

Federalism in a hybrid regime: the 18th amendment in Pakistan

June 16, 2023

This report on hybrid governance and federalism in Pakistan addresses the impact of the 18th Amendment in enhancing political, administrative and fiscal federalism in Pakistan. The Report also analyzes how the 18th Amendment has impacted governance and changed the nature and extent of hybridity in Pakistan’s political system.

This research was conducted in 2022 and completed in 2023. However, given the pace of developments since then, we reflect in our conclusion on hurdles and opportunities that hybrid governance will create for federalism in Pakistan.

This study was supported by the United States Institute of Peace (USIP).


Asad SayeedYasser KureshiZoha WaseemSidra Adil


18th amendment
hybrid state