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Fiscal federalism in a hybrid state: the case of Pakistan

April 2, 2023

This brief, written in April 2023, addresses political economy issues pertaining to fiscal federalism in Pakistan. In order to provide historical context, this brief first forays into the history of fiscal federalism in Pakistan. We then outline the gains made through the 7th NFC award to fiscal federalism and assesses different critiques and pushbacks that have come forth in the last decade on fiscal devolution. We subsequently analyse the political economy of resistance to the pushbacks against fiscal devolution in the last decade and also delves into probabilities on the pushbacks succeeding in the foreseeable future.


Asad Sayeed


18th amendment
hybrid state