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Policing in hybrid regimes: provincial autonomy, policing, and the 18th amendment in Pakistan

April 10, 2023

This brief explores two key questions: First, how is provincial autonomy undermined in the field of public policing in hybrid regimes and second, the extent to which the 18th amendment has helped curtail hybridity in a pluralized policing landscape? We present our findings primarily through the cases of Sindh and Punjab, but also provide some discussion of policing dynamics in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Balochistan.

This research was conducted in 2022 and completed in 2023 and was supported by the United States Institute of Peace (USIP)


Zoha Waseem


hybrid state
18th amendment